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Thursday, 19 May 2011

Wild Blackberry (Rubus ursinus) - Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)-Red Raspberry (Rubus Idaeus

If,after reading and viewing this post;any one who cares to check,will quickly realize and/or become aware,most of the postings on the  AOL("enhanced by Google")-IMAGE SITE, labelled Black Berries (Rubis ursinus) the plant;are in fact, Black Raspberries. Perhaps that is the reason why they have labelled the STOLEN copy of my Blackberry image as a Black Raspberry (Rubis occidentalis) blossom. 
The very fact that much of it is now stolen and not properly researched,undoubtedly,is a very good reason why there is so much MISINFORMATION presently circulating around  the internet on sites that are supposedly,a reliable education and reference resource,used by most children, colleges, elementary schools, and even universities.

As you can read, Wild Blackberries and Black Raspberries do belong to the same Genus, as you can see ,both have similar leaves, and both when ripe are black; but, there the similarity ends. You may continue reading; then consult the photos, to learn of the many differences.

Wild Blackberry (Rubus ursinus) 
The photo above clearly shows the white blossoms 
and the five-point star shape of the blackberry cane.  Rubus ursinus is the only blackberry native to the West Coast of Canada and is found abundantly on prairies, burns, clearings, and dense woodlands from coast to the mid mountains in British Columbia.

Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)
The IMAGE is public domain, my comments and logo are not.
This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Cstaffa at the wikipedia project. This applies worldwide.
In case this is not legally possible:
Cstaffa grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

Note the smooth round cane of the Black Raspberry (black-cap); they have a much different flavour than the Blackberry. Black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis), affectionately known as "Blackcaps" are native to Canada's east coast and all the way to the Rocky Mountains.They are NOT FOUND IN  WEST COAST AREAS.

Blackberry, Black raspberry, Raspberry; what is the difference?
The easiest way to tell raspberries and blackberries apart is by the berries and canes. As they mature, the fruits of both change colour from green, to red, to deep purplish black. However, the ripe raspberry forms a cup that slips easily from the receptacle (the central knob or core). In the blackberry the core is part of the ripe fruit. The cross- section of a blackberry cane is a five- pointed star. The raspberry is circular. Also the latter is dusted with a silvery powder that rubs off with the touch of a finger.

Rubus leucodermis (blackcap raspberry, United States of the Americas only )black raspberry(usually ditto) white bark raspberry] or blue raspberry-Western Canada)) is a species of Rubus native to western North America, from British Columbia, Canada, south to California, New Mexico and Mexico.] It is, of course, closely related to the eastern black raspberry Rubus occidentalis.

It is a deciduous shrub growing to 9 feet, with prickly shoots. Like most of the Rubus family, while the crown is perennial, the canes are biennial, growing vegetatively one year, flowering and fruiting the second, and then dying. My grandfather would always bend the old cane over in the fall of the second year-that way they were easily cleared away and removed in the spring of the next season). As with other dark raspberries, the tips of the first-year canes often grow downward to the soil in the fall, and take root and form tip layers which become new plants; but this trait can also make them very difficult to harvest, aboriginal peoples often didn't bother. The leaves are pinnate, with five leaflets on leaves' strong-growing stems in their first year, and three leaflets on leaves on flowering branches with white and infrequently light purple flowers. The fruit is ½ to ¾ inch in diameter, red to reddish-purple at first, turning dark blue to nearly black when ripe.] The fruit has high content of anthocyanins and elegiac acid.

Black and Blue Raspberries
Not to be confused with blackberries
Black raspberry is a sometimes common name for two species of the genus Rubus:
Rubus leucodermis, native to Western North America
Rubus occidentalis, native to Eastern North America

A black raspberry is a small fruit (botanically an aggregate fruit) that weighs between one and two grams. Almost all commercial production of black raspberries is from developed cultivars of Rubus occidentalis. Oregon accounts for over 90% of black raspberry production in the United States.

Black raspberry plants yield significantly less fruit than their red counterparts and also commonly suffer from a raspberry mosaic disease complex that gives them shorter lifespans than other cane berry plants. Because of this, they can be costly to produce on a large scale.

Because like the red, black raspberries can be harvested only for around three weeks during the year, usually starting at the beginning of July, their fresh market presence is limited. Mostly, black raspberries are made into jams, individually quick frozen, freeze-dried, or otherwise processed. Black raspberries contain less sugar and more fibre than most other berries.[citation needed] They can also be found as an ingredient in ice creams and soft drinks due to their unique name and the flavour of the berry.

Cancer Research

Black raspberries have been investigated in relation to the treatment and/or prevention of colon cancer, oesophageal cancer, and skin cancer

Blackberries and raspberries (Rubus spp.) can resemble poison ivy, with which they may share territory; however, blackberries and raspberries almost always have thorns on their stems, whereas poison ivy stems are smooth. Also, the three-leaflet pattern of some blackberry and raspberry leaves changes as the plant grows: Leaves produced later in the season have five leaflets rather than three. Blackberries and raspberries have many fine teeth along the leaf edge, the top surface of their leaves is very wrinkled where the veins are, and the bottom of the leaves is light minty-greenish white. Poison ivy is all green. The stem of poison ivy is brown and cylindrical, while blackberry and raspberry stems can be green, can be squared in cross-section, and can have prickles. Raspberries and blackberries are never truly vines; that is, they do not attach to trees to support their stems.
Wild Red Raspberry (Rubus Idaeus)-
          The fruit is light red, juicy, and pleasant to taste
It can be found in scattered patches in open woods and on mountain slopes, on bushes 2-6 feet high. The flowers are white.

 Raspberry Leaf Tea
1. Steep a scant teaspoon dried raspberry leaves in 1 cup boiling water for 3 minutes.
           Berry Pudding
1. Simmer equal parts red raspberries and red currants in enough water to cover, until the fruit is soft and has begun to lose its colour.
          2. Strain berries, and sweeten juice to taste.
3. For each quart of juice mix 3 teaspoons potato or corn starch with a few tablespoons cold water; stir this into juice.
4. Boil, stirring constantly, until the starch is cooked and the pudding begins to thicken. Serve warm or cold.
5. If you don't have red currants, substitute cranberries, or other tart berries-whatever is available.
©Al (Alex-Alexander D Girvan. All rights reserved.


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